Evergreen is a one-year or multi-year herbaceous plant that is commonly grown in India on orchards or on land as ornamental plants in orchards. The plant is native to the Madagascar country of the African continent where it grows wild in tropical rain forest. Due to the constantly declining population of this plant in Madagascar, a country of mega diversity, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (OUCN) declared it as ‘Endangered’ Red Data Book. Is listed in Transferred agriculture is the main reason for its declining population.
The scientific name of evergreen is Catharanthusroseus. It is a member of Apocynaceae clan of flowering plants. Evergreen is its Hindi name while in English it is known as Periwinkle. In Hindi it is also known as Sadafali. The maximum height of evergreen is up to 1 meter. The leaves of the plant are green and shiny. Its flowers are pink, purple or white. The fruit is of follicle type, and a fruit has many seeds. Commonly evergreen is prepared by planting seeds and cuttings for gardening.
According to the name evergreen, evergreen is a plant which always grows green in the vicinity by growing it. Herbivores despise this plant due to its astringent taste. Insects, insects, scorpions and snakes etc. do not get around the evergreen plants (probably due to the presence of alkali of the snakebite group), which maintains cleanliness in the neighborhood. Evergreen leaves destroy harmful microbes present in the soil during decomposition.
Plants of foreign origin usually expand themselves rapidly to form weeds, which are often called ‘biological pollutants’ but this type of tendency has not been found in evergreens. Therefore, evergreen is not harmful to ecology and environment like other plants of foreign origin. Evergreen allows indigenous or local plant species to flourish in their neighborhood, which has no adverse effect on bio-diversity.
Medicinal Properties and Uses:
Usually the medicinal properties are found in the whole plant but the bark of its roots is the most important part from the medicinal point of view. A variety of important alkaloids are found in this plant, which include azmalicine, serpentine, reserpene, vindoline, vincristine, and vinblastin. Azamalicin, Sarpentine and Reserpine belong to the alkali Serpentganda group.
Evergreen roots have the characteristic of lowering blood sugar. Therefore, the plant can be used in the treatment of diabetes. The plant has been used in the treatment of diabetes in South Africa as a home remedy. The juice of the leaves is used in the treatment of wasp sting. The root is also used as a abdominal tonic. The substance of the leaves is given in the treatment of disease called Menorrhagia. This disease has an exceptionally high menstrual period.
Sedatives and narcotic properties are found in the bases called amelysin, serpentine and reserpine. They have the ability to calm the central nervous system. Therefore, the bark of the roots of the plant can be used in the treatment of hypertension and mental disorders such as insomnia, depression, dementia and anxiety. In addition, they have the ability to reduce muscle stretch. Hence root bark can also be used as a painkiller. These bases have the potential to inhibit the growth of the Vibrio cholorae, a cholera disease bacterium.
Alkali has bactericidal properties, so the extract of the leaves is used in the treatment of ‘Staphylococcal’ and ‘Streptococcal’ infections. Usually both these types of infections affect the throat and lungs in humans.
Activates against the bacterium Carinebacteriumdiphtheri Corynebacterium diptherae), an alkali diphtheriae, called vindoline, present in the leaves. Therefore, the extract of leaves can be used in the treatment of diphtheria disease.
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